Ans: Compostable Product is a
product which is "capable of undergoing biological decomposition in a
compost site as part of an available program, such that the product is not
visually distinguishable and breaks down to carbon dioxide, water, inorganic
compounds, and biomass, at a rate consistent with known compostable materials
and leaves no toxic residue."
Biodegradable Products are products which will
degrade from naturally occurring microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi etc.
over a period of time. Note, that there is no requirement for leaving "no
toxic residue", and as well as no requirement for the time it needs to
take to biodegrade.
Ans: Pappco Greenware’s plant fiber products are
very strong & quality products. Can handle hot foods & beverages as they
won’t bend or break when served in them. Pappco products are microwavable till
Ans: Pappco Greenware is a brand that supports to save the environment from
getting polluted. As in the market lots of disposables are available with very cheap
pricing, but they are made from plastic & styrofoam which is not good for your
health as they release chemical in your foods & beverages. And many of
these chemicals are known to cause cancer.
Over 20 million tons of plastic are sent to landfill each year. As compared
with other disposables available in the market our products are much better in quality
& strength, environment friendly & food safe to keep you healthy.
Ans: PLA and bagasse products have an estimated shelf
life of two years. Products should be stored in a cool dry area to achieve
maximum life expectancy. PLA products should not be exposed to heat levels over
110 degrees F.
products do not decompose on their own. They must enter the composting process.
This entails putting them into the soil with food, yard waste and other organic
materials. Once the Bio compostable product enters the compost system, it will
decompose over a few months. Decomposition time is dependent on two factors.
One factor is
the way in which biodegradable products are disposed of in a commercial
composting system, as commercial compost piles contain large amounts of
moisture, are kept at a high heat and are aerated frequently. In commercial
composting systems bioplastics are expected to degrade within 180 days. Within
a home composting system, where high levels of heat are not able to be reached
and where aeration depends on how often the owner is willing to turn their
pile, bioplastics can take more than 180 days to degrade.
factor is product thickness. The thicker a product is the longer it will take
to degrade. Many commercial facilities grind or cut products such as
biodegradable cutlery in smaller pieces to decrease degradation time.
Tableware made out of Bagasse, a fibrous byproduct
of sugar production, is a substitute for disposable paper tableware. Bagasse
tableware is often marketed as biodegradable or compostable. Bagasse products
are renewable resource products. Bagasse products are made from a secondary
waste product of making sugar and therefore do not impact food supply. Bagasse
products are made with less energy and water as compared to any other paper
Bioplastics are plastics made from plants, algae, or microorganisms. The
two most common bioplastics for foodservice ware - PLA and PHA - are made from
corn.However,bioplastics can also be made from wheat, rice,
potatoes, barley, or sorghum. Bioplastics products
are made from
plants, a renewable resource. Bioplastics production uses less energy than
conventional plastics and emits less carbon dioxide. Bioplastics do not have
the same known health risks as petroleum plastics.
Ans: Most of our
manufacturing takes place in China. We do this to keep manufacturing closer to
the raw materials as the type of sugarcane pulp and bamboo fiber pulp required
is easily available in that region.
Ans: It depends on how you use the
steamer while cooking food in it, if no food is stuck on the
interior, the application of water alone should suffice. But how to clean a
food steamer with food stuck to it? The first move should be to take the step
above. Use a nailbrush to apply a little more pressure to remove the caked-on
food. It is preferable to avoid using any kind of soap, since the taste can
linger in the bamboo. But if need be, apply a small amount of dishwashing
detergent, like Persil Washing Up Liquid – preferably mild and unflavored – to
a cloth and rub the food away using the cloth. Then rinse the steamer with hot
water, again taking care not to submerge it or expose it to too much water. If
you handle it with care and keep it safe after the usage then the lifespan of
food steamer you use has no limit.
Ans: Forests cover 30% of the earth’s land. It is estimated that within
100 years there will be no rainforests. If the current rate of deforestation
continues, it will take less than 100 years to destroy all the rainforests on
the earth. The paper industry is fourth largest in producing greenhouse gas
thereby majorly contributing to deforestation. As pappco products does not support
deforestation for the making of its product as all the product are completely 100%
eco friendly and support the environment from getting polluted.
Bagasse products are 100% biodegradable and compostable. Bagasse
products are natural fiber products and it biodegrades in 90 days. When bagasse
products degrade, they provide natural ingredients back to environment since
they are made from natural, organic and renewable materials.
Bagasse products are perfect alternatives to petroleum based
Styrofoam and plastic products which take thousands of years to degrade.
Also Bagasse products are heat tolerant can even be put in the
microwave or the freezer. As with paper, extremely hot food might cause
sugarcane to lose some of its strength, but it is one of the best compostable
food service materials that can handle hot temperatures.
Bagasse products hold liquids well and they are grease and cut resistant. With very
hot liquid, bagasse products may be more likely to loose strength or perspire
after a certain period of time.
A sea change in building
technology arrived in the 1950s with the “Age of Plastic.” Industrial
development of fossil fuels into a wide array of plastics changed formulations
in everything from insulation to mechanicals to paint, and plastic is still a
ubiquitous component of every building assembly. Unfortunately, the impacts of
plastic production in its many forms are heavy in every phase of its life
cycle. While there is a common general understanding that plastics have
negative ecological associations, a closer understanding of what types of
plastics create what types of impacts will empower us to improve the toxic
footprint of our buildings.
Plastics are not
inherently bad, and they have many redeeming ecological features; in fact, many
of the techniques we utilize in our designs involve targeted use of plastic
products. Their durability and low maintenance reduce material replacement,
their light weight reduces shipping energy, their formulation into glue
products allows for the creation of engineered lumber and sheet products from
recycled wood, and their formulation into superior insulation and sealant
products improves the energy performance of our structures.
The feedstock of plastic
is primarily petroleum- or natural-gas-derived, although bio-plastics are
making inroads in the overall market share of plastic products. Obvious issues
emerge regarding the finite amount of available petroleum resources, as well as
the pollution associated with oil extraction and refinement; the massive Gulf
Coast oil spill of 2010 is only one of the more notorious of the many
ecologically devastating accidents that are not frequently considered in
addition to the standard pollution impacts of extraction and refinement, which
Toxic chemical release
during manufacture is another significant source of the negative environmental
impact of plastics. A whole host of carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and
hormone-disruptive chemicals are standard ingredients and waste products of
plastic production, and they inevitably find their way into our ecology through
water, land, and air pollution. Some of the more familiar compounds include
vinyl chloride (in PVC), dioxins (in PVC), benzene (in polystyrene), phthalates
and other plasticizers (in PVC and others), formaldehyde, and bisphenol-A, or BPA
(in polycarbonate). Many of these are persistent organic pollutants (POPs)—some
of the most damaging toxins on the planet, owing to a combination of their
persistence in the environment and their high levels of toxicity. These are
discussed in greater detail later in this chapter as a consideration of human
health; however, their unmitigated release into the environment affects all
terrestrial and aquatic life with which they come into contact.
According to the WWF,
100,000 marine mammals are killed by plastic rubbish each year around the
world. Sea animals can become entangled in the plastic debris which can cause
strangulation or growth deformations.
Floating plastics can be mistaken for food, causing blockages within the
animal’s digestive systems leading to eventual death.
The IOSEA report that the
lifespan of the average plastic bag may be between 200 to 400 years, well
outlasting the affected animal, while a plastic bottle is thought to take 450
years to fully break down.
Happened to this Whale?
In August 2000 an autopsy
on a dead Bryde’s whale near Cairns, Australia, revealed that its stomach was
tightly packed with not food but six square metres [that’s almost 200 square
feet – ed.] of plastic rubbish, including supermarket bags, food packages, and
fragments of rubbish bags.
billion trees worldwide are cut down each year for paper, representing about 35
percent of all harvested trees.
minute to look around the room you’re in and notice how many things are made
out of paper. There may be books, a few magazines, some printer paper, and
perhaps a poster on the wall. Yet, if you consider that each person in the
United States uses 749 pounds (340kg) of paper every year (adding up to a
whopping 187 billion pounds (85 billion kg) per year for the entire population,
by far the largest per capita consumption rate of paper for any country in the
world), then you realize that paper comes in many more forms than meets the
World consumption of paper has grown 400
percent in the last 40 years. Now nearly 4 billion trees or 35 percent of the
total trees cut around the world are used in paper industries on every
continent. Besides what you can see around you, paper comes in many forms from
tissue paper to cardboard packaging to stereo speakers to electrical plugs to
home insulation to the sole inserts in your tennis shoes. In short, paper is
Pulp and paper mills are large sources of standard air pollutants,
such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, sulfur dioxides, carbon monoxides and
particulates. These contribute to ozone warnings, acid rain, global warming and
respiratory problems. Many of the mills are large enough to have their own
coal-fired power plants, raising additional concerns about mercury, arsenic and
Pulp and paper mills are considered one of the most
polluting industries worldwide. Paper making process demands large amount of
fresh water and produces enormous quantities of wastewater. The wastewater is
contaminated by a number of organic and inorganic chemicals including lignin,
cellulosic compounds, phenols, mercaptans, sulfides and chlorinated compounds.
The amount and characteristics of wastewater depends upon scale of operation,
raw materials used and the process employed. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the waste stream may be in the ranges of 10
– 40 kg/t and 20 – 200 kg/t of air dried pulp, respectively.
Generally, small pulp and paper mills (< 100
t/d) generate smaller quantities of wastewater but with higher pollution load.
In a pulp and paper mill, several unit processes are used for manufacturing the
final product. Pulping and bleaching processes are the two major sources of
highly polluted water. The wastewater from pulp and paper mills has generally
low biodegradability due to the presence of recalcitrant compounds. These
pollutants are resistant to conventional biological treatment processes and
inhibit the purification of the wastewater.
Disposal of such wastewater in aquatic bodies can
have severe adverse impacts on the living organisms. This short chapter
provides an overview of the wastewater generation, its quantities and
pollutants emerged from various units in a pulp and paper mill.
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